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Parkinson’s Disease

  • What is Parkinson’s disease?

    Parkinson’s disease is a common degenerative neurological disorder that affects more than 4 million people around the world. It is characterised by abnormal body movements. There is currently no cure, but certain medications and treatment options are available to alleviate the symptoms and improve quality of daily life. Parkinson's disease affects everybody in different ways, and sometimes associated disabilities or limitations of normal daily activities may take years to develop.

    Sleep problems may be an early sign of Parkinson’s disease, even before motor (movement) symptoms have begun and these include:

    • Daytime sleepiness
    • Insomnia (difficulty falling asleep)
    • Nightmares
    • Sleep apnoea (or obstructive sleep apnoea)
  • Parkinson’s disease is caused by the progressive degeneration of a structure in the brain called the substantia nigra. This structure is responsible for producing dopamine, a neurotransmitter (brain chemical) that controls movement. Lack or low levels of dopamine trigger symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The underlying cause of this degeneration is not yet fully understood. 

    Continuing studies are investigating the potential links between Parkinson’s disease and risk factors including ageing, environmental toxins and free radicals. Genetic causes are also being examined, however, only a small percentage of Parkinson’s disease patients have a family history of the disease.

  • The main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include:

    • Balancing difficulty when walking or standing
    • Drooling and difficulty swallowing
    • Emotionless face
    • Shaking of arms and legs (when at rest)
    • Slow walking and slow movement
    • Stiff neck, legs and body
  • Your doctor will evaluate your condition and suggest treatment depending on your symptoms, age and other medical conditions. Treatment may include:

    • Deep brain stimulation, which uses electrical pulses to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
      1. Electric pulses block the abnormal brain signals that could be causing the various neurological disorder
    • Dopaminergic therapy, which uses medication to compensate for the lost dopamine
      1. Dopamine agonists mimic the action of natural dopamine
      2. Levodopa therapy delivers dopamine to the brain
    • Non-dopaminergic therapy, which uses medications that do not directly involve dopamine
      1. Amantadine drug that increases the release of dopamine, or inhibits the release of another neurotransmitter called glutamate
      2. Anti-cholinergic drugs that inhibit the action of another neurotransmitter, called acetylcholine, which becomes more active when dopamine levels go down
    • Treatment of movement disorders with oral medications or injections, used to reduce the frequency and severity of abnormal movements
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