LDLT can be the last option for patients with end-stage liver disease. In adults, the most common reason for LDLT is liver cirrhosis, which refers to scarring of the liver. Liver cirrhosis is mainly caused by hepatitis B and C, chronic alcohol consumption, autoimmune liver disease and build up of fat in the liver. In children, biliary atresia is the most common reason for LDLT. Biliary atresia is caused by an absent or a blocked bile ducts, which are tubes that carry bile out of the liver. The bile then backs up and damages liver tissue, and eventually leads to cirrhosis.
Other reasons for LDLT include liver cancer, benign (non-cancerous) liver tumours, and hereditary liver diseases.