Alpha-fetoprotein blood test, PSA test, CA-125 test, faecal occult blood test
These blood tests are used with other tests for the early detection of various types of cancer. The faecal occult blood test checks for the presence of blood in the stools, while the other tests check for tumour markers present in the blood. These tumour marker tests are not part of the official recommendations for cancer screening.
Colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy
These tests are used to detect abnormal growths in the colon, like colon polyps that may develop into cancer.
Low-dose helical computed tomography
This is used to screen for lung cancer, and is usually used for patients with significant smoking history.
This is a scan of the breasts used to screen for abnormal growths or tumours in women who may or may not have symptoms and signs of breast cancer.
This imaging test is not a standard screening tool and is used to screen women with a high risk of breast cancer.
Pap smear and human papilloma virus (HPV) testing
The Pap smear tests for cancerous or abnormal cells at the cervix. As HPV infection can be a precursor for cervical cancer, testing for the presence of the HPV virus can prevent its spread and help detect cancer early.
This imaging test is not a routine screening test. It is used to scan the ovaries and uterus to help detect ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer.